Patient Education

A page for helping patients by giving them a quick overview or definition of conditions and medical terms, plus downloadable resources.

Accessory Navicular Syndrome

The accessory navicular (os navicularum or os tibiale externum) is an extra bone or piece of cartilage located on the inner side of the foot just above the arch.

Accute Inflamation

Inflammation is the body’s normal protective response to an injury, irritation, or surgery.

Ankle Sprain

An ankle sprain is an injury to one or more ligaments in the ankle, usually on the outside of the ankle.

Achilles Tendon Rupture

A tendon is a band of tissue that connects a muscle to a bone. The Achilles tendon runs down the back of the lower leg and connects the calf muscle to the heel bone.

Ankle fractures

A fracture is a partial or complete break in a bone.

Bone Healing

All broken bones go through the same healing process. This is true whether a bone has been cut as part of a surgical procedure or fractured through an injury.


Even though bunions are a common foot deformity, there are misconceptions about them. Many people may unnecessarily suffer the pain of bunions for years before seeking treatment.

Calcaneal Apophysitis

Calcaneal apophysitis is a painful inflammation of the heel’s growth plate.

Common Disorders Achilles Tendon

A tendon is a band of tissue that connects a muscle to a bone. The Achilles tendon runs down the back of the lower leg and connects the calf muscle to the heel bone.

Chronic Ankle Instability

Chronic ankle instability is a condition characterized by a recurring “giving way” of the outer (lateral) side of the ankle.

Cavus Foot

Cavus foot is a condition in which the foot has a very high arch.

Charcot Foot

Charcot foot is a condition causing weakening of the bones in the foot that can occur in people who have significant nerve damage (neuropathy).

Capsulitis Second Toe

Ligaments surrounding the joint at the base of the second toe form a “capsule,” which helps the joint to function properly.

Deep Vein Thrombosis

The blood supply of the leg is transported by arteries and veins. The arteries carry blood from the heart to the limbs; veins carry blood back to the heart.

Diabetic Complications

People with diabetes are prone to having foot problems, often because of two complications of diabetes: nerve damage (neuropathy) and poor circulation.

Diabetic Foot Care

Diabetes can be dangerous to your feet – even a small cut can produce serious consequences.

Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathy is nerve damage caused by diabetes. When it affects the arms, hands, legs and feet it is known as diabetic peripheral neuropathy.


Equinus is a condition in which the upward bending motion of the ankle joint is limited.

Flexible Flatfoot

Flatfoot is often a complex disorder, with diverse symptoms and varying degrees of deformity and disability.

Fractures Fifth Metatarsal

Fractures (breaks) are common in the fifth metatarsal – the long bone on the outside of the foot that connects to the little toe.

Gaglion Cyst

A ganglion cyst is a sac filled with a jellylike fluid that originates from a tendon sheath or joint capsule.


Gout is a disorder that results from the build-up of uric acid in the tissues or a joint.

Haglunds Deformity

Haglund’s deformity is a bony enlargement on the back of the heel. The soft tissue near the Achilles tendon becomes irritated when the bony enlargement rubs against shoes.

Hallux Rigidus

Hallux rigidus is a disorder of the joint located at the base of the big toe.


Hammertoe is a contracture (bending) of one or both joints of the second, third, fourth, or fifth (little) toes.

Heel Bone Fractures

The calcaneus, also called the heel bone, is a large bone that forms the foundation of the rear part of the foot.

Heel Pain

Heel pain is most often caused by plantar fasciitis, a condition that is sometimes also called heel spur syndrome when a spur is present.

Ingrown Toenail

When a toenail is ingrown, it is curved and grows into the skin, usually at the nail borders (the sides of the nail).

Instructions Crutches

Even if you’ve already been fitted for crutches, make sure your crutch pads and handgrips are set at the proper distance.

Lisfranc Injuries

The Lisfranc joint is the point at which the metatarsal bones (long bones that lead up to the toes) and the tarsal bones (bones in the arch) connect.

Malignant Melanoma

Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the cells of the skin that produce pigmentation (coloration).

Mortons Neuroma

A neuroma is a thickening of nerve tissue that may develop in various parts of the body.

Os MTrigonum Syndrome

The os trigonum is an extra (accessory) bone that sometimes develops behind the ankle bone (talus). It is connected to the talus by a fibrous band.

Osteoarthritis Foot Ankle

Osteoarthritis is a condition characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage in one or more joints.

Pediatric Flatfoot

Flatfoot is common in both children and adults. When this deformity occurs in children, it is referred to as “pediatric flatfoot.”

Peripheral Arterial Disease

Commonly referred to as “poor circulation,” Peripheral Arterial Disease (P. A.D.) is the restriction of blood flow in the arteries of the leg.

Peroneal Tendon Injuries

A tendon is a band of tissue that connects a muscle to a bone. The two peroneal tendons in the foot run side-by-side behind the outer ankle bone.

Plantar Fibroma

A plantar fibroma is a fibrous knot (nodule) in the arch of the foot.

Plantar Wart

A wart is a small growth on the skin that develops when the skin is infected by a virus.


The posterior tibial tendon serves as one of the major supporting structures of the foot, helping it to function while walking.

Puncture Wounds

Puncture wounds are not the same as cuts. A puncture wound has a small entry hole caused by a pointed object, such as a nail that you’ve stepped on.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Foot Ankle

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disease in which certain cells of the immune system malfunction and attack healthy joints.

Sesamoid Injuries Foot

A sesamoid is a bone embedded in a tendon. Sesamoids are found in several joints in the body.

Soft Tissue Biopsy

A soft tissue biopsy is the removal and microscopic examination of a small sample of soft tissue for diagnostic purposes.

Stretching Exercises

Starting on your hands and knees, put the bottoms of your toes flat on the floor and sit back on your toes as much as you can. Then point your toes backward and sit back again.

Tailor’s Bunion

Tailor’s bunion, also called a bunionette, is a prominence of the fifth metatarsal bone at the base of the little toe.

Talar Dome Lesion

The ankle joint is composed of the bottom of the tibia (shin) bone and the top of the talus (ankle) bone.

Tarsal Coalition

A tarsal coalition is an abnormal connection that develops between two bones in the back of the foot (the tarsal bones).

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

The tarsal tunnel is a narrow space that lies on the inside of the ankle next to the ankle bones.

Toe Fractures

The structure of the foot is complex, consisting of bones, muscles, tendons, and other soft tissues.

Links To More Patient Education Resources

Check Out Our Blog and Vlogs

Check Out The APMA’s Patient Resources